About the Author
|Glenn M. Stein was born in
in Miami, Florida, but grew up on a barrier island on the East coast,
and now lives in Central Florida with his
wife and twin daughters. Having started collecting and
at age 12, Stein has specialized in medals related to polar exploration
last 21 years. He has written several articles about medal
medallic design for specialist journals, and gives public lectures and
displays related to polar history.
|Obverse side, full size
||Reverse side, full size
Medal, natural size.
Click on image for larger view.
107 medals engraved
1 Dr. Murray
1 Mr. Irvine Smith
11 in office
111 medals engraved
1 Dr. Murray
1 Mr. Irvine Smith
7 in office
|Feb. 15 97
118 medals engraved
1 Dr. Murray
1 Mr. Irvine Smith
|1)||ABBOTT, William J.||Actg. Asst. Engr.|
||ALDRICH, Pelham (1844-1930)||First Lieutenant||Medal known in box of issue and with document in the NMM Collection; named "PELHAM ALDRICH". Donated by Aldrich's great-nephew. 10 Promoted to Commander after Expedition. Entitled to the Arctic 1875-76 Medal (First Lieut., HMS Alert). Commanded the Western Sledge Party (Ellesmere Island) during the Arctic Expedition. Captain's Good Service Pension, November 1894. Rear Admiral, 1898. Admiral Superintendent of Portsmouth Dockyard, 1899-1902. Attended the departure of the Royal Coffin from Gosport, at the funeral of Queen Victoria, Feb. 1, 1901. CVO (1902). Admiral 1907. Retired 1908. Aldrich's journal is in the RGS archives.|
||Engineer||Shown as Allan on the List.
||BALFOUR, Andrew F.||Sub-Lieutenant|
||BETHNELL, George R.||Lieutenant||Also entitled to the Egypt 1882-89 Medal/no bar and Khedive's Star 1882 (Lieut., HMS Minotaur). Later an MM for Holderness Division, Yorkshire, for many years.|
||BROMLEY, Arthur C.B.||Lieutenant||Assistant Surveyor, 3rd Cl.|
||CAMPBELL, Lord George G.||Sub-Lieutenant||Log-Letters from The Challenger (London, 1877).|
||CARPENTER, Alfred||Lieutenant||Received the Albert Medal, 2nd Cl. during the Expedition (Stanley Harbour, Falkland Islands, Jan. 20, 1876), and awarded the RHS Bronze Medal for the same incident. DSO and specially MID for services during the annexation of Burma, and received the thanks of the Governement of India. Entitled to IGS/Burma 1885-7 (Commander-in-Charge of the Marine Survey of India, 1884-September 1889); Egypt 1882-89 Medal/no bar (Commander, in command of the survey vessel Myrmidon) and Khedive's Star, 1884-86. In 1889, received a letter from the Indian Government recordingtheir appreciation of his valuable services. FRMS; FZS.|
||CHANNER, Arthur||Sub-Lieutenant||Entitled to IGS/Burma 1885-7, when Assistant Superintendent of the Indian Marine Survey, and served with the Naval Brigade (MID). Assistant Superintendent, First Grade, Indian Marine Survey, May 1882 to August 1887.|
||HAVERGALL, Arthur||Sub-Lieutenant||Assistant Surveyor, 1st Cl. Specially promoted to Lieutenant for services during the Expedition.|
||HIGHAM, Robert||Actg. Carpenter|
||HOWLETT, William A.||Asst. Engr. 2nd Cl.|
||HYNES, John||Asst. Paymaster|
John Fiot Lee
||Contributor to the Narrative. He was second-in-Command throughout the entire voyage, and was afterwards promoted to Captain. Assistant Surveyor, 2nd Class. Retired Vice-Admiral, Aug. 23, 1897. Entitled to Crimea/Sebastopol, Baltic, Turkish Crimea Medals (Midshipman/HMS Algiers), China 1857- 60/Taku Forts 1860 (Lieutenant/HMS Sphinx), Abyssinia 1867-68 (First Lieut./HMS Octavia). He is reputed in Dictionary of National Biography 20th Century and The Times' obituary to have served as a Naval Cadet on HMS Castor during the South African War, 1850-53, but he is not on the Medal Roll. In addition, a photograph of Maclear wearing his miniature medals does not show him with the South Africa 1834-53 Medal. Admiral 1903.|
|Contributor to the Reports. Also entitled to the Arctic 1818-55 Medal (Mate/HMS Resolute, 1852-54) and Arctic 1875-76 Medal (Captain, HMS Alert - Commander of the Expedition). FRS (1875), RGS Founder's Gold Medal (1877). Gold Medal of the Société de Geographie de Paris. KCB upon his return from the Arctic Expedition. Vice-Admiral on the Retired List in 1892.|
||PEARCEY, Fredk. Gordon||Domestic, 3rd Cl.||Assistant to scientists, with
in the chemical laboratory. Employed by the Challenger Commission
upon his return of the Expedition. Contributor to the Reports.
Along with Writer 3rd Cl. Richard Wyatt, one of only two other ranks to
receive the medal.
||RICHARDS, R.R.A.||Paymaster||Unpublished journal rests in the archives of the RGS.|
||Later resigned his commission
and went to medical school in Edinburgh. Dr. Sloggett, his wife
and daughter, arrived in Honolulu in 1896, having come from the state
of Washington. In 1900, he helped organized the Honolulu Microscopic
Society. He was also a member of the Medical Association of
Hawaii and its president in 1903. Medal sent to Honolulu,
||SPRY, William J.J.||Engineer||The Cruise of HMS Challenger (London, 1880).|
||SWIRE, Herbert||Sub-Lieutenant||The Voyage of the Challenger (two volumes, limited edition; London, 1937).|
||THOMSON, Frank T.||Captain
|In charge of survey. Contributor to the Reports.|
||TIZARD, Thomas H.||Staff Cmdr.||Asst. Surveyor, 1st Cl.
to the Narrative and Meteorological
Observations. Probably entitled to the Baltic Medal. CMG (Queen's
June 3, 1899). Shown on the 1901 and 1907 Retired Lists with a
this may be in error for the CMG.
||Writer, 3rd Cl.
||A Chief Petty Officer
rating. Along with Domestic 3rd Cl. Fredk. G. Pearcey, one of
only two other ranks to receive the medal. On April 4, 1873,
Wyatt discovered Schoolmaster Adam Ebbels in his hammock, dead from
|Chemist & Physician||
Contributor to the Reports. Specific Gravity of Ocean Water.
|Naturalist||Zoologist and Anthropologist. Notes by a Naturalist on HMS Challenger (London, 1880). Contributor to the Narrative. Hydroid and other Corals; Phosphorescent Organ of Ipnops. Royal Medal (1887); MA; FRS (1877); FZS; FLS.|
|Naturalist||Considered the founder of modern oceanography. Seven of the 50 volumes of the Challenger Reports were written largely or entirely by Murray. He was also the Editor, contributor to the Narrative and wrote the Summary of Results. Deep-Sea Deposits. FRS (1896); FRSE. Cuvier Prize & Medal (Institute of France/1894); Humbodt Medal (Berlin Society of Geography/1895); Royal Medal (RS/1895); Founders Medal (RGS/1895); Neill Medal (RSE/1880); Makdougall-Brisbane Medal (RSE/1886); Order of Pour le Mérite for Arts & Sciences (Prussia/1898); Cullum Medal (AGS/1899); Clarke Memorial Medal (RSNSW/1901); Lütke Medal (IRSG/1904); Livingstone Medal (RSGS/1910); Grand Cross of the Royal Order of St. Olav (Norway/1910); Helen Culver Medal (GSC/1911); Vega Medal (SAGS/1912); Agassiz Gold Medal (Academy of Sciences, Washington/special copy/1913). Murray created the Alexander Agassiz Medal in honor of his friend. The medal is awarded for an original contribution in the science of oceanography. KCB (1898). In 1886, he put forth a plan to send two ships on a major Antarctic expedition. Although it was never put into action, eight years later, the RGS used his ideas to promote the British National Antarctic Expedition.|
|Director of Civilian Scientific Staff||First
Editor of the Reports. Introduction of the Zoological
FRS (1869). Sir Wyville Thomson was an important proponent for ocean
research in the 1860s that ultimately led to the Challenger voyage. He was chief
scientist for the dredging voyages of Porcupine
and Lightning, and
authored The Depths of the Sea
in 1873, which summarized the findings of these voyages and presented a
case for a global oceanographic voyage of exploration.
||WILD, John James||Artist & Secretary||At Anchor: A Narrative of Experiences Afloat and Ashore During the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger from 1872 to 1876. (London, 1878). Contributor to the Reports. A Swiss national.|
Dr. Rudolf von
|Naturalist||Marine Biologist. died at sea of
erysipelas, age 28, Sept. 13, 1875, onboard the Challenger, while on passage to
Tahiti, and was buried
at sea. One would assume his Medal
was sent to his family, as was the case
with Dr. George Busk. A memorial tablet given to the family
Murray, Buchanan, Moseley and Wild,
now rests at the family burial place in
Bad Segeberg (about 30 miles south of
TO THE REPORTS
and Oceanographer. FRS
(1891). He had performed extensive explorations in the U.S. littoral
areas prior to the Challenger
expedition. He was an advisor and valuable assistant to Thomson
immediately after the expedition, and participated in cataloging of the
specimens and forming the initial plans for the Challenger reports.
|Hydroida.||Marine Zoologist. Royal Medal (1873); Brisbane Gold Gold Medal (1877); Conning- ham Gold Medal (1878); The Linnean Medal (1896). MD; LLD; FRCSI; FRS (1854); FRSE; MRIA; CMZS.|
||Member of Editorial Staff. Naturalist to the Challenger Expedition Commission (1882-84). MA; DSc; FRS (1892); Prosector of the Zoological Society (1884-1915); FRSE; FZS.|
|Invertebrate Zoologist. MD.
|Gasteropoda.||Medal known. Chaplain, Royal Army; Zoologist. LLD; FLS; FGS; FRSE.|
|Copepoda; Ostracoda.||MD; FRS (1882); FLS; FGS.|
|Stomatopoda.||American Zoologist known for his research into the anatomy and embryology of marine animals. Elected a Member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1884.|
|Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation.||Meteorologist. Medal known with document, held at St. Columba's Hospice, Challenger Lodge, Edinburgh. Secretary of the Scottish Meteorological Society in Edinburgh. MA; LLD. FRS (1898).|
|Polyzoa.||Medal known. Named "GEORGE
Ex-Surgeon, Royal Navy.
and Palaeontologist. RS
Royal Medal (1871); GS Wollaston Medal and Lyell
Medal. XClub Member.11
FRS (1850); FGS. Busk appears in the group photograph of the Royal
Society's scientific party onboard the Challenger (December 1872).
||CARPENTER, Philip Herbert
|Comatulae and Stalked Crinoids.||Medal awarded posthumously and sent to his wife. Crinoidologist (Zoologist & Palaeontologist). FRS (1885); FLS. Son of William Benjamin Carpenter (1813-85), a physiologist who contributed to the Reports, but is oddly absent from Challenger Medal List.|
||CHUMLEY, James||Secretary to the Director & Editor.|
||COMBER, Thomas||Contributor to the Narrative.|
|Magnetical Results.||Medal known. Named "E.W. CREAK". Promoted to Second Master, Dec. 9, 1858. Captain, RN, in 1901, and Director of Compasses in the RN's Hydrographer's Dept. Instructions for the set of magnetic instrucments used by the 1901-04 British National Antarctic Expedition were supplied by Creak. FRS (1885); KCB (1901).|
||CUNNINGHAM, Daniel John||Marsupialia.||MD; FRS (1891); FRSE. (1850-1909)|
||CUNNINGHAM, Joseph T.||Contributor to the Narrative.||Posted to the Royal College of
|Monaxonida.||Zoologist. BSc; FRS (1908); FLS.|
||Chemist. FRS (1882); FRSE (1863); Fellow, Institute of Chemistry; Chemical Society of London' s Graham Medal; Hon. LLD, Edinburgh University.|
Tongatabu and the Fiji
||Naturalist. The Finsch Crater on the Moon is named in his honor.|
||FORBES, William A.||Anatomy of Tubinares; Birds of Cape York, &c.||FLS; FGS; MBOU. Posted to Mrs.
|Member of the Editorial Staff.||Medal known. Named "T. W.
FULTON". MD (1884); FRSE.
||GIBSON, John||Analysis of Manganese Nodules.|
||GÜNTHER, Albert Charles
|Shore Fish; Pelagic Fish; Deep-sea Fish.||MA; MD; PhD; FLS; FRS (1867). Royal Achive Winner (RS, 1878).|
||HAECKEL, Ernst (1834-1919)||Radiolaria; Deep-sea Medusae; Deep-sea Keratosa.||Biologist & Philosopher. MD; PhD.; Hon. FRSE.|
|Polyplacophora.||Zoologist & Anthropologist. Regarded as one of modern British anthropology. FRS (1899); MRIA.|
||HARMER, Sidney Frederic
|Cephalodiscus.||Zoologist; FRS (1898).|
||HEMSLEY, William Botting
|Botany of the Expedition.||Botanist and Taxonomist. FRS (1889).|
||HERDMAN, William Abbott
|Member of Editorial Staff. Tunicata.||Marine Zoologist and Oceanographer. President of the Liverpool Geological Society (1898-1900), being awarded the Society's Silver Medal (1922). Knighted (1922). DSc; FRS (1892); FLS; FRSE.|
||HERTWIG, Richard Karl Wilhelm Theodor von (1850-1937)||Actiniaria.||Zoologist. Knighted (1910).|
|Cirripedia; Pycnogonida.||Marine Zoologist. Member, Royal Academy of Sciences (Netherlands).|
||HORSLEY, Reginald Ernest
||Member of Editorial Staff.|
|Member of Editorial Staff. Cephalopoda.||Malacologist. MA (Oxon.); MRCS; FRSE.|
|Nemertea.||Zoologist. LLD; CMZS.
|Spirula.||Medal awarded posthumously and sent to his wife. FRS (1851); Royal Medal (1852); President of the Royal Society (1883-85). X Club member.12 Known as "Darwin's Bulldog".|
|Pennatulida.||FRS (1860); Copley Medal (1897); FMRS; Hon. FRSE.|
||LANKESTER, Edwin Ray (1847-1929)
||Medal sent to the Zoology
Laboratory, University of Oxford. A disciple of Huxley,
Lankester's father (Edwin) was medical doctor and friend of Huxley's.
Director of London's Natural History Museum from 1898-1907). FRS
|Phosphorescent Organs of Fish.||Spongiologist and Cnidariologist.|
Alexandre Guillaume, Marquis de Folin
|Ophiuroidea.||Naturalist. Served in the American Civil War as a Lieutenant-Colonel and Aide-de-Camp on Gen. George G. Meade's staff. (1863-65).|
William Carmichael (1838-1931)
||Annelida; Cephalodiscus; Phoronis.||Botanist and Marine
of Natural History,
University of St. Andrews (1882-1917). MB; LLD;
||Ornithologist and Carcinologist
||Medal sent to the Natural
History Museum, Paris.
||MURRAY, George Robt. Milne
||Published An Introduction to the Study of Seaweeds
(1895). Posted to the British Museum, London.
|Development of the Green Turtle.||Marine Zoologist and Naturalist. FRS (1865); Royal Medal (1866).|
|Pteropoda; Anatomy of Mollusca; Spirula.|| Chemistry Teacher
and Amateur Malacologist.
||Medal known. Named "T. DIGBY PIGOTT". Ornithologist. CB (1890); Knighthood (1906).|
||POLÉJAEFF, Nicolai Nikolaevich||Calcarea; Keratosa.||Spongiologist.
(1854 - ?)
|Reef Corals.||Zoologist. BSc (Lond.).|
|Deep-sea Deposits; Petrology of St. Paul's Rocks.||Geologist and Petrographer. Bigsby Medal (London Geological Society, 1885).|
|Monaxonida.||Medal known. Named "S.O. RIDLEY". Spongiologist. MA; FLS.|
PALEOTTI, Count Adelaro
|Birds of Ternate, Amboyna,
||Ornithologist. Last of the original Honorary Fellows of the AOU.|
|Steganopodes; Impennes; Procellariidae.||Ornithologist. The Godman-Salvin Medal, of The British Ornithologists' Union is named after him.|
|Schizopoda; Cumacea; Phyllocarida.||Marine Biologist.|
|Laridae.||Ornithologist. FZS; FLS.|
|| SCHULZE, Franz
|Birds of the Admiralty Islands, &c.||Ornithologist. FRS (1861); FLS; Co-founder of The Society for the Preservation of Wild Fauna of the Empire (1903).|
|Asteroidea.||Marine Zoologist. FZS; FLS; FGS.|
||SMITH, Edgar A.||Lamellibranchiata; Heteropoda.||Zoologist. FZS.|
||SOLLAS, William Johnston
|Tetractinellida.||Geologist. Other scientific interests included zoological and anthropological subjects. In his later years, he became a leading authority in the latter. MA; DSc; LLD; FRS (1889).|
Gentleman-Naturalist. MA; FRS (1896).
|Alcyonaria.||Zoologist. MD and PhD.|
|Pressure Errors of the Thermometers; Physical Properties of Water.||Physicist and Mathematician. FRSE; Royal Society's Royal Medal (1886); Hon. Fellow of Edinburgh Math. Society.|
||THISELTON-DYER, Dr. William
||Medal sent to the Royal Gardens,
Kew. Director of Kew (1885-1905). FRS (1880); KCMG; CIE. He was Sir
Joseph Dalton Hooker's son-in-law.
||THOMSON, Sir John
|Translator of Zoological Reports.||Naturalist. Knighted
|Cetacea; Pinnipedia; Human Skeletons.||Anatomist. MB; LLD; FRS (1877); FRSSL&E.|
(? - 1930)
||Zoologist. FLS; FGS.|
|Anatomy of the Spheniscidae.||Anatomist. MD; FRS (1884); FRSE.|
||WRIGHT, Edward Percival||Alcyonaria.||Marine Zoologist (?) MA; MD; Sec. MRIA.|
||ANDERSON, W. S.
||BLACK, William S.
||Designer of the Challenger Medal
||DICKSON, H. N.
||FOSTER, Michael (1836-1907)
||FRS (1872). KCB
(1899). From 1881-1903, one of the secretaries of the Royal
||GOSCHEN, Rt. Hon. George Joachim
||Member of Parliament
|| First Lord of the
Admiralty (1871-74 and 1895-1900). Chancellor of the Exchequer
(1886-1892). The latter position may be the reason he was issued
a medal. Goschen may have assisted with funds to publish the
||MONTEITH, Dr. James
||Medal List states: "handed
to Mrs. Monteith, per Lily Murray August 27, 1895".
||Presumably Dr. Murray's wife.
||NANSEN, Fridtjof (1861-1930)
||Presented personally by Dr.
Murray on Feb. 15, 1897. The medal was doubtlessly given in
recognition of the oceanographic work carried out by Nansen during the
Fram Expedition (1893-96).
||PULLAR, Laurence||Financer (?)||Medal known. Named "LAURENCE PULLAR". FRSE (1903) and FRGS; LLD, University of Edinburgh (1926) in recognition of his generosity in the promotion of scientific research. Pullar was a life-long friend of Sir John Murray, and this association drew him into his interest in scientific research. With Pullar's financial aid, a steam yacht was built and equipped for oceanographical work near the shores of Scottish sea-lochs, which enabled Murray to carry on these investigations for several years. This is but one example of Pullar's financial assistance toward the advancement of science. It is claimed in some writings that Murray did not tolerate the red tape of government, and when the Treasury became stubborn, he spent his own money to bring out volumes of the Report.13 It would seem possible that Pullar also put money toward the publishing, and perhaps as a result of these financial contributions, was given a Challenger Medal by Murray. To date, however, the author has not uncovered any direct link between Pullar, the Challenger Expedition or the Reports.|
||RICHARDS, George Henry,
||Rear Admiral||FRS (1866); CB (Civil/1871);
Knighted (1877); KCB (1886); Arctic 1818-55 Medal (Commander/HMS
Assistance/1852-54). Richards had an extensive background as a
surveying officer, and in 1864, was appointed Hydrographer of the Navy.
He retired from the RN in January 1874, and in December of that
year, served on a committee to plan the Arctic Expedition of
1875. Richards appears in the group photograph of the Royal
Society's scientific party onboard the Challenger (December 1872)
||THE ROYAL SOCIETY
||Sent to Burlington House, London.
||Hand delivered to recipient at
||Presumably the daughter of
Philip Lutley Sclater, who evidently assisted her father in his work.
|| Merchant Captain
||In the Report, Turbyne is
described as "being in charge of the Marine Biological Station at
Millport" and having been for many years "Captain of Dr. Murray's steam
Yacht 'Medusa' ". The Marine Biological Station at Millport was
established on the Isle of Cumbrae in the Firth of Clyde, in the spring
of 1885. The Report relates that Turbyne "worked for over 13
years under Dr. Murray's instructions (including 10 years
consecutively)", conducting practical investigations "while matters
strictly scientific were undertaken and prepared for press by men
with a scientific training." The above would explain the award of
the Challenger Medal.
||Sent "C/O James Murray, Supt.
Com. Pac. RI., Winnipeg, Manitoba".
||One unengraved medal
||Taken to Holland by Dr. Murray.